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June 1982 Price 50p 

Special report: 
The Libyan sehagst 
In L@gecdon 


Israel puts all its territories at the disposal of the US Forces 

The Green Mar 



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AL-ZAHF AL-AKHDAR — the first newspaper in the history of the Arab and 
international press not owned by an individual, government or any tools of 
exploitation; the ideological weekly journal of the Revolutionary Committees, 
supporting the cause of freedom everywhere and fighting exploitation of the masses. 

English language edition available every week. Order your copy from 
your newsagent or bookshop. 


No 25 June 1982 

COVER STORY: In the centre of Chelsea the new 
Libyan school has opened its doors to students. 
Phil Kelly visited the premises and talked with the 
headmaster, who explained the importance of the 
school for the children of Arabs living in London. 
The report appears on pages 12 and 13. 

AFRICA: Despite continuing efforts by Washington 
to persuade African states to boycott the 
Organisation of African Unity summit in Libya, 

the recent African Economic Ministers’ meeting 

in Tripoli suggests that the August summit will be 

a success. Over 40 countries attended the April 
meeting. See report on page 9. 

REVOLUTION IN ACTION: Crucial to Libya’s 
ambitious development programme _ are the 
advances the Jamahiriya has made in the field of 
higher education. On page 14, Dr Alan George 
examines Libya’s progress in education and the 
special emphasis placed on technical skills. 

PALESTINE: As resistance to Zionist repression 
continues in the occupied West Bank and Gaza 
Strip, Saudi Arabia and Israel have both put forward, 
‘plans’ for the resolution of the Palestine question. 
But as Phil Kelly reports on pages 10 and 11, each 
serves merely to maintain US influence in the area, 
and to deny the Palestinian Arabs their national 

ECONOMY: Against the background of evidence 
suggesting that the Saudi and American engineered 
oil glut may soon be over, on page 17, we 

examine the prospects for the oil producers in the 
coming months. ; 

NEWS REVIEW: Panorama News Review on pages 
5 to 8 provides a monthly report on news and events 
in the Libyan Jamahiriya, the Arab homeland 

and the Third World. Reports this month include 
the Time magazine opinion poll amongst West Bank 
Palestinians, which showed that Muammer Qadhafi 
is the most popular Arab leader. 

Published by Jamahiriya Review, 13A Hillgate Street, London 
W8 7SP. Telephone: 01-727 3131. Telex 892830 Event G. Printed 
by W F Aldridge & Co Limited, London SW16 6NW. We acknow- 
ledge the co-operation of JANA, the Jamahiriya News Agency, in 
providing its daily bulletin. 


Editorial: Appeasement must not be on the agenda ............... 4 

A monthly summary of news and events from the Libyan 
Jamahiriya, the Arab homeland and the Third World 

Qadhafi ‘most popular Arab leader’ ....................... 000. eee ee ees 5 
OC RES TRS: FO NI | cdc utes sieeas sd tecsandeercrenaetneseuts 5 
US diplomat backs Qadhafi’s Sahara unity call ..................... 5 
Oadhatt save: “econo 16 NOAM .ysclsccsci eae eee 5 
Kreisky: ‘West should not spurn Libya’ ...................00ceeeeeee: 6 
America ‘not serious on new economic order’ ...................... 6 
Pekcirie ervey Feevics TA0is 10 PPO occas dc syec cikwaucadonccannine; 6 
Washington and Rabat in agreement .....................ccceceee eens 7 
Call for greater involvement by women .....................000000 00: 7 
Specialists demand nuclear-free Mediterranean ................... 7 
EUAN ATEANE CLL PREG ar oi as Lda Gea ccte ust oan nne kas 7 
Kenya delegation prepares for OAU summit ......................5. rd 
Red Sea alliance warns of US schemes ..........................0005: 8 
South Africa behind Seychelles coup ...................0..0cccee ee eee. 8 
PCTS TICs CERES WTI I VAIIE es occ hcdac cc deausagunecinaeeaeassis 8 
TAS WATE COPPER RENT U RY soc Si an sch dee he gcdissgrn snes 8 

Economics meeting points to Libya’s central role .................. 9 
COED eS NE CII WON 2k dna cas aduiuass bone nneiegs baie lcRdnies 9 
Resistance continues in occupied Palestine .................... nee 1G 
israel "not pente-lovittn” Says WIN: desc ccescccoviccn asda deces ete || 
International moves signal danger ..................ccccccuceeeeeeues 11 

Education in London for Libyan children .........................05. 12 

Higher education: The key to Libya’s future ....................... 14 
Free studies auroadl TOr SHOCIANSUS oo. isccscvaidccrtiviacku ear tseees 14 
Training the new generation of teachers ........................008. 15 

Lost ina minefield of misinformation ............................22.. 16 
OPEC may have beaten off oil surplus problems .................. 17 

Ber earner Te CNG os ces i eabsvakevuiouweknueeoeenes 18 
FIGIDOLES TOF TIVINI COCEOT SOT V IOS aoss sescbesoseccaeserieirisstinses 18 
PAU Mine NERY: PONTNUMEME Gairek GNacante tual cchannbveseebuadceediecaahadiontanns 18 
Fiery RRL OPCS CII he noc cide uotuchanneiencbeevantehiayeaeesas 18 
Ec AEyeeey INES 100 NEUE Sicha rranaddaesaeeesakeesaewhacdaansciehehaabons 18 
PAE PIKE CT EES E RURIEY OCT: da scsi vineendn adi iaauh euch ys veeakwenndas 18 
Libal: Joint company for aluminium scheme ....................... 19 
Mew dari wwill Boost Aerie ose iaae de chcisindcccarcceseveneaaes 19 
Telephone exchanges on schedule .....................c0cceeeeeeeues 19 
British consultant for Tripoli housing scheme ........ shah cobedbes 19 



must not be on the agenda 

AS CERTAIN Arab regimes began to call for relations to be 
restored with Egypt, Zaire has announced that diplomatic 
relations with Israel will be restored. Each of these moves 
must satisfy Washington, and the American efforts to secure 
African and Arab support for the Camp David accords and 
acceptance of the Zionist state in Palestine. 

It is important, therefore, to explain why each of these 
developments should be opposed. 

Firstly, the initiative now being launched to bring Egypt 

back into the forums of the Arab states: When President - 

Sadat went to occupied Jerusalem and subsequently to Camp 
David, the new Egyptian policy dealt a serious blow to the 
Arab nation and the Palestinians. It was, without doubt, a 
victory for Israel. 

The Camp David accords were more than a peace treaty 
between Israel and Egypt, militarily the strongest Arab 
state. The accords were in two parts: the first dealt with 
Israeli withdrawal from Egyptian territory in Sinai, occupied 
in the 1967 June War; the second was devoted to the future of 
the West Bank and Gaza, two areas of Palestine also occupied 
in 1967. 

Although Egypt regained her territory as a result of the 
Camp David accords, the real benefits went to the Zionists. 
President Sadat gave the Israelis at the Camp David nego- 
tiating table the very thing which they had been unable to 
secure in three decades of aggression — legitimacy for 
their occupation of Palestine in 1948. 

But there were other important benefits for the Zionists. 
They left Camp David with a military superiority far greater 
than at any time in the past. By signing a peace treaty with 
‘Israel, Egypt made it possible for the Zionists to concentrate 
their military strength on the West Bank and along the 
borders with Lebanon and Syria. 

The consequences have been clearly evident: the Pales- 

tinians on the West Bank have faced increased brutality at’ 

the hands of the Zionist occupation forces. And so too have 
the Palestinian refugees in the Lebanon. Safe in the know- 
ledge that Arab capacity to respond on a military level has 
been dramatically reduced by the removal of Egypt from the 
military equation, Israel is now able to concentrate on a 
wholly military approach to the Palestine question. 

Nothing the Zionists have done since Camp, David has 
brought a change in Cairo’s policy: hundreds have died in 
Israeli bombing raids on the Lebanon — four hundred alone 
died in a single raid on Beirut last summer; Iraq’s nuclear 
reactor in Baghdad was reduced to rubble in another of 
Beigin’s characteristic attacks. And in recent weeks scores of 
young unarmed Palestinians have been killed or injured as 
Zionist troops storm around the West Bank in a futile effort 
to impose Zionist military occupation on the Palestinian 

Meanwhile, Israel has made it quite clear that withdrawal 
from the occupied West Bank and Gaza is not in the Zionist 
programme; more and more Zionist settlements have been 
created, Arab Jerusalem declared Israel’s ‘eternal capital’, 
and Syrian territory on the Golan has been annexed. 

Indeed, all that is happening on the West Bank and Gaza 
Strip today — the suffering and the bloodshed — was pre- 

dictable from the very moment that the Camp David accords 
were signed and published. 

The question now is what change has occurred which 
makes the Camp David accords, and Egyptian policy towards 
Israel, more acceptable now than when the Arab states broke 
diplomatic ties with Cairo? President Sadat has gone, but his 
policies on the Palestine issue remain part of the new Egypt- 
ian government’s programme. To restore diplomatic ties with 
Cairo implies acceptance of Egypt’s surrender to Israel, and 
the Camp David accords. 

Unfortunately, such acceptance of Israel is also implicit in 
the Saudi peace plan which is now being proposed once 
again, despite clear opposition from other Arab states when 
it emerged at the last Rabat Arab summit. It is a strange time 
for anyone, let alone an Arab government, to speak about 
peace with the Zionists when the Israeli government is busy 
murdering Palestinians on the West Bank and mobilising for 
an invasion of the Lebanon. 

Africa and the Palestinians 
Equally, it is difficult to accept Zaire’s argument, in defend- 
ing her decision to restore diplomatic ties with Israel, that it is 
a logical act now that Israel has withdrawn from Sinai; today 
Israeli (and American) influence in Egypt is stronger than it 
was at the time when Zaire broke relations with Israel. 

That might not be a very strong argument to put to Presi- 
dent Mobuto: he has long chosen to align his regime with 

‘Washington, and any other foreign government which will 

help keep him in power. But when the rest of independent 
Africa examines its stand on the Palestine question, can’ 
they afford to ignore Israel’s policies in Africa? 

Most important is the Zionist alliance with, apartheid 
South Africa, in a programme of co-operation which includes 
the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and the supply of 
arms and expertise to South Africa in support of the apartheid 
regime’s oppressive policies against the Black Africans of 
southern Africa. Israeli advisers and arms were used in 
Zimbabwe in a futile effort to maintain the Smith regime in 
power, and SWAPO has reported similar Israeli involve- 
ment in Namibia. 

Moreover. under the secret clauses of the strategic co- 
operation agreement between Israel and the United States, 
the Zionists are expected to fulfil a proxy role for Washing- 
ton. American funds and military aid will be channelled 
through Israel to support regimes where direct aid from 
Washington would arouse African hostility, or in the case of 
regimes with a bad record on human rights, where US aid 
would face opposition from Congress in Washington. Hence, 
Israel’s role is to ensure a cover for American interference in 
African affairs, and to ensure continuing support for regimes 
which the American Congress would not approve on the basis 
of human rights. 

But even if Israel were not in alliance with the South 
African regime, nor a front for American efforts to maintain 
economic and political control over African affairs, Zaire’s 
move is a sickening one. The Palestinian people today are 
struggling for their independence and right to self-deter- 
mination, yet Zaire has chosen to align herself with a brutal, 
colonial settler-regime. 

A monthly 
review Of 
Libyan, Islamic 

and Third World 

A portrait of Muammer Qadhafi is carried on a recent Palestine 
solidarity march in London. 

Qadhafi ‘most 
popular Arab 

A RECENT opinion poll amongst 
Palestinians in the Israeli-occu- 
pied West Bank shows. that 
Muammer Qadhafi is the most 
widely respected of non-Pales- 
tinian Arab leaders. 40 per cent 
of those polled said that they 
admired Qadhafi most. Amongst 
the Arab countries, Syria was the 
most popular (33 per cent of 

respondents), with the Jama- 
hiriya coming a close second 
(29 per cent). 

The poll, commissioned by 

Time magazine and published on 
24th May. shows a notable lack of 
support for America’s allies in 
the region. Only 11 per cent of 
interviewees named _  Jordan’s 
King Hussein as the leader they 
most admired. President Mubarak 
of Egypt was mentioned by only 
one per cent. Bottom of the list 
was Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince 
Fahd, cited by a trifling 0.9 per 
cent of those polled. 

The poll shows overwhelming 

support amongst Palestinians 
for an independent state of their 
own in their country. 98 per cent 
wanted a state, and 59 per cent 
wanted it to embrace the whole 
of Israeli-occupied Palestine. 

There was also overwhelming 
support for the Palestine Liber- 
ation Organisation, with 86 pe: 
cent of respondents wanting a 
state run solely by the PLO. 

The Time magazine poll shows 
conclusively the hostility of Pales- 
tinians towards the collaborators, 
headed by the former Jofdanian 
cabinet minister Mustapha Dudin, 
that Israel is trying to build up 
into an ‘alternative’ local leader- 
ship. Dudin was cited as the most 
popular local leader by a minis- 
cule 0.2 per cent of respondents. 
By far the most popular local 
leader. mentioned by 68 per 
cent of those polled, was the 
Nablus Mayor Bassam Shaka, 
who was recently dismissed by 
the occupation authorities. 

The poll also revealed the wide 
extent of the opposition to the US- 
sponsored Camp David accords. 
86 per cent of interviewees 
described Camp David as a 


Israel ‘has 200 

A RECENTLY published book on 
the Zionist state’s attack last 
year on Iraq’s nuclear reactor 
reveals that Israel has stockpiled 
200 nuclear warheads, and is 
collaborating closely with South 
Africa in developing a _ cruise 
missile with a 1,500 mile range, a 
neutron bomb, and _ various 
nuclear weapons delivery systems. 

Two Minutes Over Baghdad 
was written by three Israelis, all 
of them with excellent connec- 
tions in the Zionist military 
and government. One of the 
authors, Amos Perlmutter, worked 
for four years at Israel’s top secret 
nuclear establishment at Dimona, 
in the Negev desert, where the 
Zionist state builds its atom 

US diplomat 
backs Libya's 
Sahara unity call 

THE PROPOSAL aired last year 
by Libyan Revolutionary leader 
Muammer Qadhafi for a merger 
between the Saharan Arab Demo- 
cratic Republic and Mauritania 
has been supported by an Ameri- 
can diplomat. Charles Dunbar, 
deputy chief of the US mission in 
Kabul, Afghanistan, writing in 
the Winter 1981-82 issue of 
SAIS Review, published by the 
School of Advanced International 
Studies at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, related the suggestion of 
such a merger to the ethnic 
identity of the people of Mauri- 
tania and the Western Sahara. 

Mr Dunbar points out that the 
two peoples are both Moorish, 
members of a part of the Arab 
nation which has always lived in 
the north western corner of 
Africa, since long before the 
Spanish colonised what is now 
the Western Sahara, and the 
French seized Mauritania. Before 
colonial times, the area was known 
as the Bilad Singit. 

The Libyan leader’s suggestion 
of unity was based on this ethnic 
identity. The Polisario Front, 
fighting to liberate the remaining 
area of the Western Sahara, have 
stressed that within the ethnic 
identity, there were political 
differences. Even before colon- 
isation, the people of the Western 
Sahara did not owe allegiance to 
the amirs of what is now Mauri- 



tania. In their fight for indepen- 
dence, Polisario have _ under- 
standably chosen to stress this, 
to indicate that they have as much 
a right to independence within the 
old colonial boundaries as any 
other part of the Arab people. 
Muammer Qadhafi chose to go 
beyond this, and given the estab- 
lishment of Sahrawi indepen- 
dence, to stress the unity of the 
two countries. 

The Review stresses that Mr 
Dunbar’s conclusions ‘are not 
those of the US government’. 
The propagandists of the Reagan 
administration have sought to 
portray any suggestion by the 
Libyan leader that there should 
be greater unity between Arab 
states as part of a ‘Libyan plot’ 
for a ‘Saharan empire’. They have 
now been severely embarrassed 
by evidence from one of their 
own diplomats of the serious and 
scientific basis for Muammer 
Qadhafi’s ideas. 

Qadhafi says 
‘economy is 

‘LIBYA’S ECONOMIC situation 
is healthy, and exporting oil is 
not a serious problem for us.’ 
With these words, revolutionary 
leader Muammer Qadhafi has 
dismissed reparts in the western 
media alleging that the world oil 
glut, and the recently-imposed 
US embargo of Libyan oil were 
causing severe difficulties in the 

In a country-wide radio and 
television broadcast on 28th April, 
Colonel Qadhafi predicted that 
international demand for oil would 
pick up in the coming months. 
‘The Jamahiriya is rich in oil, 
and will use it as soon as there is 
a need for it,’ he declared, add- 
ing: ‘We cannot sell our oil for 
low prices in order to gain 
foreign currency. Instead, we have 
decided to store our oil in the 
ground, and not sell it at prices 
lower than $30 per barrel.’ 

Disclosing that two new oil 
fields had recently been dis- 
covered in the Jamahiriya, 
Muammer Qadhafi declared: 
‘America has failed to beseige 
the Libyan Arab people, who are 
capable of resisting all US 

In March the United States 
imposed a boycott of Libyan oil, 
and tried to persuade American 
oil technicians working in thep> 


In Vienna Muammer Qadhafi calls for closer co-operation between Europe and the Arab nation. See ‘Kreisky’ item below 

> Jamahiriya to leave. The move 
came amid _ false _ allegations 
circulated by US intelligence 
agencies to the effect that the 
Jamahiriya had sent ‘hit squads’ 
to assassinate President Reagan. 

On 17th April Libya’s Basic 
People’s Congresses began their 
first session of 1982, and 
Muammer Qadhafi took the oppor- 
tunity to express his satisfaction 
at their deliberations. Under the 
Jamahiri system of direct demo- 
cracy, the Basic People’s Con- 
gresses are the local forums 
where all citizens debate Libyan 
and international policies. Colonel 
Qadhafi said that his obser- 
vations of the session had streng- 
thened his faith in the Libyan 
people’s ability to administer 
themselves, without any tradition- 
al government imposed from 
above. ‘These discussions have 
made me _ confident that the 
Libyan Arab people are capable 
of self-rule and_ self-determin- 
‘tion,’ he declared. 

Kreisky: ‘West 
should not 
spurn Libya’ 

IN MARCH, Austria became the 
first western country to host a 
visit by Muammer Qadhafi, and 
Chancellor Bruno Kreisky has 
since revealed his impressions of 
the Libyan leader, and stressed 
that other western states should 
follow Austria’s lead. There was 
no evidence to support alle- 
gations that Libya finances 
international terrorism, he said. 

Interviewed on 26th April by 
Vorwaerts, the official weekly of 
West Germany’s ruling Social 
Democratic Party, Kreisky said 
that it would be a mistake to 
ignore the clear indications that 
Libya was interested in improving 
ties with the West. He added that 
during his talks with Qadhafi, he 


had found him to be a ‘sincere’ 
leader with serious policies. 

The Austrian Chancellor has 
also strongly defended Qadhafi 
against allegations of involve- 
ment in ‘international terrorism’. 
Such charges, which are re- 
peated ad nauseam, and without 
any substantiation, often centre 
on alleged Libyan involvement 
with the Italian Red Brigades 
terrorists. But in an interview 
with the London monthly The 
Middle East in May, Chancellor 
Kreisky said that the Libyan 
leader had specifically stressed 
his firm opposition to terrorism, 
whether in Italy or elsewhere. 
‘Qadhafi firmly stated that he is 
not interested in any terrorist 
activity in Italy, and that he is 
doing all in this power to solve 
peacefully the problem of Italian 
terrorism,’ said Kreisky. 

The Chancellor added _ that 
Libya’s close economic ties with 
Italy should be enough to dispel 
any suspicions on Libyan involve- 
ment with the Red Brigades. 
‘Everybody knows to what extent 
Libya is involved in Italy’s eco- 
nomy. Like many other firms, 
Italy’s greatest group, Fiat, is 
partly owned by the Libyans,’ 
he noted. 

The Chancellor concluded: 
‘One question that everybody 
should answer is whether there 
is any real evidence of Qadhafi’s 
complicity in terrorism. To talk 
about it means little.’ 

Further evidence that Libya has 
not supported the Red Brigades 
came on 3rd May, during the 
trial in Rome of 63 suspected 
members of the group. Antonio 
Savastas, the principal prose- 
cution witness, is a Red Brigades 
member who has turned state’s 
Savastas, who led 
last December’s terrorist  kid- 
napping in Italy of the American 
General Dozier, declared in court 
that the Red Brigades had no 
contacts whatsoever with the 
Libyan Jamahiriya. 

America ‘not 
serious’ on new 
economic order 

tries, headed by the United 
States, are not serious about the 
creation of a new international 
economic order, and are actively 
working to undermine the poli- 
tical, economic and_ cultural 
independence of Third World 
countries. This was the blunt 
message of Abdesalam Jalloud, 
a close aid of revolutionary 
leader Muammer Qadhafi, to 
African Planning and Economy 
Ministers, meeting in Tripoli on 
28th and 29th April. 

‘The advanced industrial 
countries have placed a range of 
obstacles in the path of those 
who want to create a just world 
economic order,’ he declared, 
adding: ‘Those countries want 
to keep the backward world 
forever backward, and to confine 
independence in Africa to raising 
a flag and having a president. 
They do not want independence 
to acquire its political, eco- 

nomic, cultural and social mean- 


Major Jalloud continued: 
‘The advanced industrial coun- 
tries are not serious about estab- 
lishing a just world economic 
order, which will allow the 
advanced countries to continue 
their progress while also allow- 
ing the backward world to over- 
come its underdevelopment.’ 

He pointed to US policies in 
southern Africa and Palestine 
as hard evidence of Washing- 
ton’s hostility to Third World 
aspirations. ‘This most feudal- 
minded and reactionary of all US 
administrations blatantly backs 
two racist regimes — in South 
Africa and Palestine. It tries to 
make each a special gendarme, 
having lost its gendarme force, 
the Shah of Iran,’ he said. 

‘The American administration 
led by Reagan has daily chal- 

lenged African sentiments ever 
since it came to power,’ said 
Major Jalloud. ‘It inaugurated 
its rule by strengthening co- 
operation with the racist South 
African regime and undermining 
international decisions concern- 
ing independence for Namibia. It 
is now waging an economic war 
against. and creating social and 
economic problems for, the 
Third World.’ 

US policies, he concluded, 
meant that the world was passing 
through ‘the most dangerous 
period since the end of the Second 
World War’. 

Peking envoy 
holds talks in 

A SPECIAL envoy from the 
People’s Republic of China, 
Hua Yong, paid a short official 
visit to the Jamahiriya in May. 
He held talks with Staff Major 
Abdel Salem Jalloud, and with 
Abdul Ati al Obeidi, Secretary for 
Foreign Liaison. Bilateral re- 
lations between China and the 
Jamahiriya were the main topic 
of discussion. Mr Yong expressed 
his pleasure at Libya’s achieve- 
ments over the past thirteen 
years, and its firm stand against 
imperialism and Zionist expan- 
sionism. Closer relations between 
the two countries were in the 
interests of world peace and 
security. A strong Libya under the 
leadership of Colonel Muammer 
Qadhafi was in the interests of 
the Libyan people and of the 
Chinese people, the envoy said. 

The meeting follows’ the 
decision in 1979 by the General 
People’s Congress in Tripoli to 
break diplomatic ties with Peking 
because of China’s support for 
the Sadat regime. 

At the meeting in Tripoli in 
March of the International Forum 
against Imperialism, Zionism 
Racism and Reaction, Muammer 

Qadhafi expressed regret that the 
People’s Republic was not re- 
presented. It was well qualified 
to attend the forum, the Libyan 
leader said, because of its status 
as a major Third World country 
which played a deterrent role in 
safeguarding other people’s 
independence, he said, adding: 
‘It would be wise to leave the 
door open for China to join this 
forum when it decides to break 
its ties once and for all with the 
imperialist forces that are opposed 
to the people at this forum.’ 

Washington and 
Rabat in 

AMERICAN PLANES will be able 
to use bases in Morocco for 
attacks on the other parts of the 
Arab homeland. This was the 
agreement reached between King 
Hassan II and the Reagan admin- 
istration during the monarch’s 
recent trip to Washington. The 
Americans have been pressing the 
Moroccan ruler to allow them to 
use his country for their military 
aircraft for some time. The 
United States provides some $55 
million in economic aid to 
Morocco, and last year lent the 
country $30 million to buy US 
weaponry. A proposal to increase 
that amount to $100 million was 
recently made by the _ State 
Department, but this was halved 
by the Congress. 

In a desperate effort to conceal 
the extent of his dependence on 
the US, King Hassan claimed 
recently that he would not allow 
the American bases in his country 
to be used in any US action against 
an Arab country. ‘There is no 
question that we are non-aligned,’ 
said the King. If there were a 
conflict in the Gulf, or if western 
surrogate forces were to attack 
Libya, it is unlikely that Hassan 
or his ministers would even be 
consulted about the use which 
the Americans made of the bases 
handed over to them. 

Call for greater 
involvement by 

IN CONTRAST to reactionary 
Arab countries, the Libyan 
Jamahiriya has consistently 
sought to involve its female citi- 
zens fully in all aspects of the 
country’s social, economic and 
political life. Addressing _ girl 
students in Tripoli on 8th May, 
revolutionary leader Muammer 
Qadhafi reaffirmed this deter- 
mination, and_ stressed _ that, 
contrary to often repeated claims, 
there was nothing in the Islamic 
faith that restricted the role of 




Urging the students to enlist 
in the Jamahiriya’s military 
colleges, which are open to all 
Libyan citizens, Qadhafi declared: 
‘The Zionist enemy has mobilised 
both men and women to confront 
the Arab nation.’ The Arabs 
could not afford to have half their 
population passive at a time when 
they faced such serious chal- 

lenges. , 
He called on Libyan women to 
shoulder their full responsi- 

bilities, pointing to the commit- 
ment of Christian nuns as an 
example to Arab women. ‘The 
task before the Arab nation is the 
creation of a movement of revo- 
lutionary sisters to help counter 
Israel and the imperialist schemes 
aimed at undermining the inde- 
pendence of the Arab homeland,’ 
he declared. 


A FIRM call for the trans- 
formation of the Mediterranean 
basin into a nuclear-free zone has 
come from Greek Premier Andreas 
Papandreou. In an_ interview 
with the Algerian daily Al 
Moudjahid on 10th May, Mr 
Papandreou reaffirmed his Pan- 
Hellenic Socialist Party’s commit- 
ment to ‘closer co-operation in the 
various fields [between Medi- 
terranean countries], and in favour 
of a struggle for a Mediterranean 
without foreign bases and fleets, 
de-nuclearised and socialist’. 

The interview appeared the day 
before Mr Papandreou’s arrival 

in Algiers for talks with Presi- 
dent Chadli Benjedid, the first 
meeting between the two leaders. 

‘The transformation of the 
Mediterranean into a lake of peace 
is the collective task of the Medi- 
terranean peoples and _ socialist 
movements,’ Mr  Papandreou 
declared, stressing that, as a zone 
between West and East and North 
and South, the region was of key 

The Greek Premier revealed 
that Athens is to strengthen its 
ties with the Polisario Front, 
which is waging a guerrilla war 
for the independence of the former 
Spanish colony of Western Sahara, 
now under Moroccan occupation. 
‘On the basis of the principle of 
solidarity with national liber- 
ation movements, the Greek 
Government is looking favourably 
at the question of a presence 
in Athens of the Polisario Front,’ 
Mr Papandreou said. 

Greece last December formally 
recognised the PLO as the sole 
legitimate representative of the 
Palestinian people, and upgraded 
the PLO Office in Athens to em- 
bassy status. Mr Papandreou 
reaffirmed to Al Moudjahid 
his Government’s position, say- 
ing: ‘The European Ten could 
play an important role in the 
recognition of these [Palestinian] 
rights. Greece, by its avant garde 
positions, sees itself naturally in 
the role of advocate of the just 
Palestinian and Arab rights within 
the community.’ 

Earlier. Algiers had been the 
venue for the Fourth Conference 
of the Mediterranean Basin Pro- 
gressive Forces. an_ informal 

grouping of the region’s socialist 
parties. The conference ended on 
7th May with a strongly-worded 
appeal to Mediterranean peoples 

Libyan women are urged by Muammer Qadhafi to free them- 
selves from the restrictions imposed by traditionalists — see 
report left. 


to turn the region into ‘a zone of 
security, peace and co-operation’, 
and to break the stranglehold on 
international information of the 
western-based multinational news 
agencies. The Algiers conference 
called for ‘a new international 
svstem for communications and 
information that will preserve the 
identity of all peoples’. 

Iranian oil 
experts arrive 

A FIRST group of Iranian oil 
industry experts has arrived in 
Tripoli to help the Jamahiriya 
overcome difficulties posed by 
Washington’s economic boycott 
against Libya, Tehran _ radio 
announced on 8th May. The 
volunteers travelled to Libya with 
a delegation from the Jama- 
hiriya’s Heavy Industry Secre- 
tariat, which will return to inter- 
view a further 39 Iranian 
mechanical engineering experts, 
the radio added. 

On 10th December last, Ronald 
Reagan banned US citizens from 
travelling to Libya, and called 
on those already there to leave. 
The move was in response to 
fraudulent allegations circulated 
by US intelligence agencies 
regarding Libyan ‘hit squads’ 
despatched to assassinate the US 
President. Washington’s aim was 
to cripple the Jamahiriya’s 
economy; many US citizens in 
Libya work in the crucial oil 

Iran at once expressed its 
willingness to assist the Jama- 
hiriva in overcoming any resultant 
manpower shortfalls, and on Ist 
January a team of ten Iranian 
oil specialists arrived in Tripoli 
to assess Libya’s requirements. 
Iran’s Deputy Oil Minister, Mr 
Hossain Kheradmand? has _ said 
that Iran would send as many as 
300 experts, if they were needed. 
Algeria, Kuwait and the United 
Arab Emirates’ have _ offered 
similar assistance. 

prepares for 
OAU summit 

A HIGH level Kenyan delegation, 
headed by Foreign Minister 
Robert Ouko, has been touring 
North Africa in advance of the 
August summit in Tripoli of the 
Organisation of African Unity. 
The delegation arrived in the 
Jamahiriya on 17th May, carrying 
a letter for Muammer 
Qadhafi from Kenyan President 
Daniel Arap Moi, current Chair- 
man of the OAU, who will hand 
over to the Libyan leader in 



As American troops increase their presence in the Arab homeland, progressive states prepare their 
response. See ‘Red Sea Alliance’ report. 

> On 18th May the Kenyan team 
held talks with Staff Major 
Abdesalam Jalloud, a close aide 
of the Libyan leader, and one of 
the Free Unionist Officers who 
toppled the Idris monarchy on 
lst September 1969. The talks 
centred on the coming summit, 
and on the challenges facing the 
African peoples 

The Kenyan delegation arrived 
in Tripoli from Algiers, where 
they held wide-ranging talks with 
President Chadli Benjedid. 

Red Sea alliance 
warns of US 

A WARNING that the United 
States and its local allies were 
stepping up their efforts to under- 
mine independence and security in 
the region has come from a meet- 
ing in Aden of the Foreign 
Ministers of the Red Sea Alliance. 

The Alliance, comprising the 
Libyan Jamahiriya, Ethiopia and 
Democratic Yemen, was formed 
last year to counter the growing 
penetration of the Red Sea region 
by the United States, and the 
threat posed by the US’ Rapid 
Deployment Force. 

Two days of wide-ranging talks 
ended on 9th May with a com- 
muniqué warning that Washing- 
ton, in association with Israel 
and western orientated regimes in 
the area, had ‘stepped up its 
attacks and conspiracies against 
the progressive countries and 
forces, as well as national liber- 
ation movements, using economic 
pressure and provocative mili- 
tary manoeuvres’. 

Washington’s objective, the 
statement continued, was ‘to 
undermine security and stability, 
and to perpetuate its military and 
political domination over the 

To counter the growing threat, 
the Red Sea Alliance called for 
greater co-ordination between 
‘nationalist and progressive 

regimes and national liberation 
mevements in the area, as well as 
with the allied socialist com- 

Delegations at the Aden meet- 

ing were headed by Abdel Ati al 
Ubeidi, Secretary of the People’s 
Committee of the Jamahiriya’s 
Foreign Liaison Bureau, Dr Feleke 
Gedle Giorgis, Foreign Minister 
of Ethiopia, and Salim Salih 
Muhammad, Foreign Minister of 
the People’s Democratic Republic 
of Yemen. 

On 8th May Mr Ubeidi arrived 
in Abu Dhabi, federal capital of 
the United Arab Emirates, for a 
short round of talks with senior 
UAE officials, and with a message 
from Muammer Qadhafi to UAE 
President Sheikh Zayed Bin Sul- 
tan an Nahyan. The _ Libyan 
official was met at the airport by 
UAE Foreign Minister Rashid 
Abdullah, and by Mr Muhammad 
Ali Marih, Secretary of the Libyan 
Brotherhood in the UAE. 

The Jamahiriya is progressive- 
ly phasing out its embassies, and 
replacing them with people’s 
bureaux, administered by com- 
mittees of ordinary 
rather than by career diplomats. 
In Arab countries the new Libyan 
diplomatic missions are termed 

Arab Brotherhood Bureaux, in - 

recognition of the essential unity 
of the Arab nation. 

South Africa 
Seychelles coup 

official South African complicity 
in last year’s attempted over- 
throw of the Seychelles Govern- 
ment by a mercenary’ group 
headed by Michael Hoare. The 
group launched their assault 
from South Africa, and after 
having been beaten off by Sey- 
chelles security forces, escaped 
to Durban by hijacking an Air 
India civilian airliner. 

Libyans, | 

The trial is underway in Pieter- 
maritzburg of 43 mercenaries 
accused of hijacking, and on 17th 
May Hoare said in court that 
the South African government 
and military authorities were 
‘fully aware’ of the plot. 

Hoare said: ‘I remember tell- 
ing them [his men] not to go 
running off to the International 
Intelligence Service because they 
knew all about it.’ He denied 
having told the mercenaries 
that on their return to South 
Africa none of them would face 
‘dire consequences’. He added, 
however, ‘I am sure I would have 
said that if the operation went 
wrong, we were not friendless, 
and our friends in high places 
would help us.’ 


accords with 

A TWO-year foreign affairs and 
information agreement has been 
signed between the Sahrawi Arab 
Democratic Republic (SADR) 
and Cuba. The agreement, signed 
in Havana on 6th May by Cuban 
Foreign Minister Isidoro Mal- 
mierca and visiting SADR Infor- 
mation Minister Muhammad 
Salem Ould Salek, provides for 
yearly meetings for consultations 
on international affairs, and for 
the exchange of information on 
the activities of the two Minis- 
tries at international forums. 

Mr Muhammad = Abdelaziz, 
Secretary-General of the Polisario 
Front and President of the SADR, 
also visited Cuba in May for high 
level talks. 

The Polisario Front has been 
waging a successful guerrilla war 
for the independence of the former 
Spanish colony of Western 
Sahara. When Spanish rule ended 
in February 1976, Polisario pro- 
claimed the SADR, but, in the face 
of heavy international criticism, 
the territory was occupied by 

| Moroccan forces. 

Ties with Ghana 

THE LATEST sign of the growing 
links between the Libyan Jama- 
hiriya and Ghana came on 4th 
May, when it was announced that 
Libya had agreed to supply 
Ghana with 60 per cent of its oil 
needs over the next six months. 
Accra radio said that the Jama- 
hiriyva will provide 360,000 tonnes 
of crude oil, worth £54 million, 
and that the west African country 
will not have to pay for the ship- 
ments until one year after deli- 
very. Even then, there will be a 
six months’ grace period. 

The agreement was a key out- 
come of talks in Accra between 
Ghanaian officials, headed by 
Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings, 
Chairman of the ruling Provisional 
National Defence Council (PNDC), 
and a delegation from the Jama- 
hiriya that included Economy 
and Light Industry Secretary Musa 

Abu Freiwa, and Abdesalam 
Jalloud, a close aide of revo- 
lutionary leader Muammer 

On Sth May Accra radio quoted 
Brigadier Nunoo-Mensah, 
Ghanaian Chief of Staff and a 
PNDC member, as having ex- 
pressed to the Libyan delegation 
his country’s appreciation for the 
Jamahiriya’s programme of oil 
and food aid. 

During the Accra talks, the 
latest Libyan food aid consign- 
ment arrived in Ghana, compris- 
ing 47 tonnes of food, including 
flour and rice, which was des- 
tined for hospitals, orphanages 
and leprosaria. 

Earlier, it was announced 
that a Ghanaian diplomatic 
mission will soon, open in the 
Libyan capital, Tripoli, as part of 
a reorganisation of Ghana’s net- 
work of representation overseas. 
On 1st April, Ghana’s Foreign 
Secretary, Obed Asamoah, said 
that ten out of a total of 43 em- 
bassies in Africa would be closed 
as an economy measure, including 
those in Senegal, Egypt, Zaire, 
Zambia, Uganda and Mali. He 
disclosed that a _ diplomatic 
mission will also be opened in 

Relations between Libya and 
Ghana have been warm since the 
New Year’s Eve 1981 coup in 
Accra, when the corrupt regime 
of President Hilla Limann was 
toppled by Flight Lieutenant 
Rawlings. Diplomatic links, 
severed during Limann’s rule, 
were restored early this year. 

In another move underlining 
the Jamahiriya’s solidarity with 
its fellow African states, Libyan 
Economy and Light Industry 
Secretary Musa Abu Freiwa on 
20th April signed a co-operation 
agreement in Tripoli with visiting 
Mozambican Agriculture Méinis- 
ter Sergio Vieira. 

THE SUMMIT conference 

of the Organisation of African 
Unity will take place in 
Tripoli in the first week of 
August. The United States 
and Israel are making 

strenuous efforts to persuade 
OAU member countries not 
to attend. But as Phil Kelly 
reports, the African view of 
Libya’s role is rather 

AT THE end of April, Planning and 
Economy Ministers from more than 40 
of the 51 OAU member states attended 
the eighth conference of African planning 
ministers in Tripoli. Also present were 
officials of United Nation’s specialist 
agencies concerned with economic plan- 
ning and development, and of the OAU, 
from Secretary General Edem Kojo down- 

Significant participants in the Tripoli 
meeting were the Planning Ministers of 
Nigeria and Tunisia. Both countries have 
had their disagreements with the policies 
of the Libyan Jamahiriya in the past. 
Since Muammer Qadhafi’s visit to Tunisia 
earlier this year, there has been a con- 
siderable improvement in relations. But 
Tunis is still subject to open US pressure 
to oppose Libya, and to join in a US- 
sponsored military pact in North Africa. 
Nigeria has suffered because of the world 
oil glut arranged by the United States 
and its Arab surrogate regimes, but still 
has many differences with Libya over 
economic and political matters. 

Nevertheless, both states were repre- 
sented at the Planning conference. It 
seems that the US Administration hopes 
to torpedo the August summit by per- 
suading one third of OAU member states 
not to attend, thus depriving the meeting 
of the quorum necessary under OAU rules. 
This is now unlikely to occur, especially 
as states such as Nigeria and Tunisia feel 
quite able to attend Tripoli-based inter- 
national gatherings. 

Opening the Conference, the Jama- 
hiriya’s Planning Secretary, Fawzi Shak- 
shuki, said that Libya would continue to 
offer support for Africans to take hold of 
their own resources. Desite its tremendous 
wealth, he said, the continent was the 
poorest in the world because its resources 
were being exploited to create progress 
elsewhere. ‘Africa ts the victim of an un- 
just world economic order that is retarding 
the continent’s growth and robbing it of 
its resources in an attempt to keep it in a 
constant state of reliance on others,’ he 

During the debates at the Conference, 
Secretary Shakshuki described the present 
struggle for Africa as ‘one in which the 
West seeks to make the poor poorer and 
the rich even wealthier’. International 


Economics meeting points 
to Libya's central role 

Poverty: Evidence that economic liberation 

has been denied 

monopolies were draining Africa’s re- 
sources and lowering prices of basic 
commodities to maintain Africa’s economic 
dependence on the West, the Libyan 
official said. 

This analysis of the roots of Africa’s 
problems is shared by the Jamahiriya and 
most other African states, moderate or 
radical. It is not accepted by western 
governments, which blame the problems 
caused by the west in Africa on the Afri- 
cans themselves. 

The Executive Secretary of the UN’s 

Obote rejects 

THE ZIONIST state of Israel has been 
lending a hand in the campaign against 
Libya in Africa. Israeli propagandists 
have deliberately misrepresented the 
position of several African govern- 
ments, including that_of Milton Obote 
in Uganda. 

One of Israel's leading propagan- 
dists in Britain is Colin Legum, former 
assistant editor of the London Sunday 
Observer. On 9th April, Legum con- 
tributed an article to the US daily 
Christian Science Monitor about a 
‘recent visit to Uganda’. In his judge- 
ment, the most important issue, with 
which he opened his article, was 
Libyan ‘involvement’ in Uganda. 
‘Uganda military authorities seem 
convinced that Libyan leader Muammer 
Qadhafi is supplying arms to opponents 
of President Milton Obote,'’ wrote 
Legum. No sources were cited for this 

In the space of several hundred 
words, Legum blamed all the serious 
economic problems of Uganda on 
Libyan involvement. He concluded that 
as a result, ‘President Obote is among 
the African leaders who have announ- 

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African Economic Committee, Dr 
Adibayou Adidji, underlined the Libyan 
Secretary’s analysis. ‘The only alter- 
native open to Africa is self reliance on 
indigenous resources, the establishment 
of manufacturing industries, the develop- 
ment of African expertise and the expan- 
sion of local and regional markets,’ he told 
the meeting. 

The Conference was sharply critical of 
a World Bank report on economic develop- 
ment in sub-Saharan Africa. A committee 
of experts recommended that African 
countries should reject the report, which it 
said was intended to continue African 
economic dependence on the West. The 
experts suggested instead that Africa 
should be self-reliant. In line with a call 
from the Libyan delegation at the Con- 
ference, the report recommended that uni- 
fication of markets and regulation of 
prices of basic commodities should be the 
African strategy. 

The economic question — between 
planning as advocated by the Jamahiriya 
and the free-for-all espoused by the west 
and its institutions such as the World 
Bank — underlines American opposition 
to Libya’s role in Africa. At a political 
level, African countries are closer to the 
Libyan than to the American view of eco- 
nomic development. Because of this, US 
efforts to isolate Libya in Africa will almost 
certainly be fruitless. 

Zionist claims 

ced they will stay away from next 
year's (sic) summit meeting of the 
Organisation of African Unity in Tri- 
poli.’ This is simply a lie. 

On 26th April, President Obote, in 
a long message to Colonel Qadhafi, 
confirmed that Uganda would attend 
the conference of the OAU in Tripoli 
in August. In a clear reference to the 
activities of Legum and others, de- 
nounced ‘prejudiced propaganda and 
the campaigns and clamour raised by 
imperialism, Zionism and _ reaction, 
which sought to cast doubts on the 
holding of the forthcoming African 
summit conference in Libya.’ In this 
respect, the message continued, the 
campaigns ‘fell in line with the 
American administration's objective of 
preventing the convocation of the 
conference in the Jamahiriya.’ These 
campaigns were directed at breaking 
up the unity of Africa, said President 
Obote. Libya had played a firm role in 
bolstering this unity, his message said, 
and Libya’s role in evicting the Zion- 
ists from their diplomatic footholds in 
Africa had ‘served the cause of free- 
dom of the African people’. 


Resistance continues in 



wy ) 


Palestinian youths are lined up in a Nablus 

occupation troops on the West Bank 

BRUTAL AND trigger happy: that was 
the description of the recent actions of 
Zionist occupation forces in the West 
Bank and Gaza districts of Palestine. 
The epithets came not from Palestinians 
but from six reserve officers in the Zionist 
army itself. Demonstrations against the 
Zionist occupation have been continuing 
almost daily since the beginning of March, 
and according to the latest figures 
announced by the Palestinians, twenty- 
four innocent people had lost their lives at 
Zionist hands in March, April, and the first 
week of May. In addition, at least twice 
that number were killed by Israeli air 
attacks on Palestinian camps in Lebanon. 

Among the worst incidents perpetrated 
by the Israelis was the shooting of a 
seventeen year old girl school student, 
Ahassan Abu-Daraz, in a classroom of 
her school in the Khan Yunis Refugee 
camp in occupied Gaza, on 4th May. 
The murder occurred after Zionist troops 
forced their way into the school, whose 
pupils have consistently expressed their 
support for the Palestine 
Organisation. The pretext was that stones 
had been thrown from the school at an 
occupation forces’ patrol. Seven other girls 
were wounded when the patrol rampaged 
through the school. 

Nablus Mayor Bassam Shaka said when 
the current wave of repression began 
that Israeli strategy ‘is so to frustrate 
the Palestinians that many of them leave. 
Then when the Palestinian people is less 

j : 

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d ry a C2 . oo bosses % ; 4 
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SeapeRaERE: es ga a Tr rm ar 

inside the occupied terri- 
tories have died at Zionist 
hands in the past two 
months than at any time 
since Israel’s 1967 

aggression. Phil Kelly looks 
at Palestinian resistance to 
occupation and the latest 
western plans to undermine 
Palestinian resistance and 
Arab resolve. 

dense, Israel will be able to annex the 
territory with a minimum of opposition,’ 
he told the Christian Science Monitor on 
11th March. In Gaza, two incidents have 
served to confirm this view. At the end of 
March, a Zionist army officer tried to rape 
a Palestinian girl, aged 15. He had offered 
to escort her home after she had been 
released from arrest. 

The conviction that current Israeli 
military activities are part of a plan inten- 
ded to panic the Palestinians into flight 
was further strengthened by the death of 
an eleven-year old boy and the wounding of 
an eleven year-old in an explosion at a 
Gaza refugee camp. 

Palestinian sources said that the incident 
occurred as the two were playing with an 

object which they had found. As the area 
itself had not been the scene of clashes 
between Palestinians and the occupiers, 
there is considerable speculation that the 
device which exploded had been deliber- 

ately left by the Zionists to cause 
injury to the innocent, particularly 

Two facts point to the conclusion that 
the current clashes are part of a Zionist 
plan to expel a large proportion of the 
Palestinians from the 1967-occupied terri- 
tories. The first is that historically, terror 
against innocent civiliams has been a 
trusted Zionist tactic. The infamous 
massacre of Deir Yassin in April 1948, 
when 253 people were slaughtered by the 
Irgun, the terror group headed by current 
Zionist premier Menachem Beigin, was 
part of a campaign to force Palestinians 
to flee. This 1948 atrocity was verbally 
condemned by Labour Zionists, as anxious 
in 1948 as they are now to maintain a 
facade of respectability in the West. 
But no one ever stood trial or was arrested 
for the massacre, although the Zionists 
were well aware of the identity of the 

In just the same way, the Israeli Labour 
Party today has verbally criticised the 
actions of the Israeli army in the 1948 
occupied territories, but it backs the drive 
to expel the Palestinians. Its concrete 
suggestions are limited to the idea that 
Palestinian demonstrators should be shot 
at with plastic bullets. As Northern Ire- 
land has shown, these are as capable of 
killing as the live ammunition currently 
favoured by the Zionists. 

The second is the confirmation by the 
Zionists that the killing of demonstrators is 
an intended part of military action in the 
1967-occupied territories. ‘General Rafael 
Eitan, Israeli Army Chief of Staff, denied 
yesterday that there had been any change 
of policy towards demonstrators in the 
occupied territories. Every shooting by 
soldiers had been fully investigated and in 
no case had army regulations been in- 
fringed he told the Knesset Foreign 
Affairs Committee,’ the Financial Times 
reported on 6th May. 

The Palestinian population has learnt 
the lesson of 1948, and it seems unlikely 
that there will be a mass exodus. The 
actions of the occupiers are serving to 
reinforce nationalist sentiment. The prob- 
lem for Palestinian leaders in the West 
Bank and Gaza is however, that any act 
of protest may be seized on by the Israelis 
to tighten their grip on the area. 

israel ‘not peace-loving’, says UN 

THE GENERAL Assembly of the 
United Nations has voted by 86 votes to 
20 for a _ resolution declaring that 
Israel was ‘not a peace-loving member 
state’ and requesting sanctions against 
it. There were 34 abstentions in the 
voting. States supporting the reso- 
lution included all Arab countries with 
the exception of Egypt, most African 

countries, and the socialist bloc. Only 
one western European country, Greece, 
supported the move. 

The vote, at the end of April, was a 
direct result of the most recent Israeli 
raids into Lebanon and the murder of 
dozens of unarmed Palestinian civilians 
in the 1967-occupied territories by 
Zionist troops and police. Cuba, Malta 

and Senegal have submitted a further 
call to the Assembly, on behalf of the 
whole non-aligned movement, to ‘re- 
view Israel’s UN status’ during the 
forthcoming 37th Ordinary Session. | 
This is seen as a prelude to the | 
eventual exclusion of the racist state | 
from the General Assembly, as South | 
Africa was excluded several years ago. | 

ESS sss ss entanteshssasssssnsssssssnssnssiesssinstsannas 


TWO DIFFERENT plans for the future of 
occupied Palestine are being touted at 

| the present time. One is the Israelis’, 
the other is the Saudis’. Each of the parties 
| is trying to prove to the United States 
| that its plan offers the best way of 
| containing the Palestinian and Arab revo- 
lution, and so of protecting western 
interests in the Arab homeland. The 
United States as always, wishes to 
preserve its influence and control over 
both its surrogates, and to minimise any 
contradictions between them. 

The Zionist plan is straightforward. 
The West Bank, Gaza and the Golan will 
be more or less rapidly incorporated into 
the Zionist state. This will go forward 
as quickly as resistance from Palestinian 
and Syrian people under occupation 
will permit. ‘There should be no distinc- 
tion between settlement in Galilee [in 
the 1948-occupied territories] and the heart 
of Samaria [the 1967-occupied West 
Bank],’ Zionist Premier Menachem 
Beigin told the Knesset on 4th May. 

‘When the time comes for the appli- 
cation of our national sovereignty over 
Judea, Samaria, and the Gaza district, 
we shall continue to maintain full auto- 
nomy for the Arab inhabitants as was 
agreed at Camp David,’ he declared. 

‘This is not sovereignty and it is not 
self-determination,’ he pointed out. 

The imposition of the ‘civilian’ adminis- 
tration under Colonel Menachem Milson 
is a preparatory move for permanent 
annexation. The vicious Zionist response to 
Palestinian protest is part of this, but to 
complete it, the Zionists need to destroy 
the military strength of the PLO in 
Lebanon, which complements and _ is 
complemented by the support of Pales- 
tinians under occupation for the PLO. 

The PLO has striven to avoid giving the 
Zionists a pretext for such an attack. 
For the second time in two months, Zion- 
ist jets struck refugee camps in 
Lebanon on 9th May. Because the Pales- 
tine resistance is alerted to the possi- 
bility of such raids, damage was minimal 

When the Zionists struck in April, there 
was no PLO retaliation. This time, rockets 
were fired into the northern part of the 
1948-occupied territories. They were 
aimed away from Zionist settlements. 
falling in fields. The PLO thus demon- 
strated that it had the ability to reply 
to a Zionist attack, without needlessly 
| shedding blood. 

Nevertheless, the Israelis are clearly 
relying on the close links they have with 
the Reagan Administration to enable them 

| to continue to ‘create facts’ of settle- 
| ments in the West Bank, Gaza and the 

Golan until these occupied regions become 

indistinguishable from the rest of occupied 


Saudi plan 
| But the United States is dragging its 
feet over the future of Palestine. While it 
| is unable for domestic political reasons 
to place serious limits on Israeli expan- 
sionism, the Reagan Administration must 

4, 000 archers leave London's Hyde Park on 15th May as nart of British activities in 
solidarity with the Palestinian people, marking the anniversary of the 1948 Zionist 

occupation of Palestine. 

International moves 
signal danger 

nevertheless retain the confidence of its 
Arab neighbours. Hence the new interest 
expressed privately in Washington and 
more publicly in the countries of the 
European Community in the revived Saudi 
plan, the so-called Fahd plan. 

First launched in August last year, the 
Fahd plan calls for the acceptance of the 
occupation of Palestine as one of its basic 
premises. It was rejected by the PLO and 
the other countries of the Steadfastness 
and Confrontation Front. When the Saudis 
tried to present it at the November Arab 
summit conference in Fez, the effect was 
to break up the meeting, and prevent 
any discussion of the Palestine problem, 
or indeed of any other of the problems 
pressing on the Arab nation. 

This divisive effect is seen by radical 
Arabs as one of the major motives for the 
Saudis in raising the plan again at this 
stage. The other is that the Saudis can, in 
this way, preserve their links with the 
West from the otherwise” obvious criti- 
cism that their regime is sustained in 
power with the active assistance of those 
who also back Israel. They argue that 
these links with the West help to modify 
western views, and to produce pressure 
on Israel. 

There is no evidence at all that this is 
the case. But strenuous efforts are made by 
sections of European official opinion to 
lend credence to the Saudis’ pleas. The 
current President of the EEC Council of 
Ministers Leo Tindemans of Belgium, 
made the customary fact finding tour of 
the Middle East in May, the fourth suc- 
cessive EEC President to do so. Reports 
from Brussels on his return spoke of 
‘various options open for a possible new 
diplomatic initiative’. 

Cynical observers also noted that 
Washington was saying that any American 
move in the near future should be ruled 
out because of the ‘proximity’ of Con- 

gressional elections in November. The last 

EEC the Venice declaration, 

was in June 1980 — timed nicely so that 
the US elections could once again be the 
European alibi for a failure to turn fair 
words into real action. 

European motives 

The Europeans, and particularly the 
British have their own interests in the 
Middle East, and they are therefore 
particularly prepared to act as the Reagan 
Administration’s stalking horse in their 
attempt to preserve the credibility of the 
West’s Arab protegés. The closeness of 
Anglo-American relations over foreign 
policy was set out by former Secretary of 
State Henry Kissinger, in a speech in 
May to the Foreign Office financed 
think tank, the Royal Institute for Inter- 
national Affairs. Kissinger told how ‘The 
wartime habit of intimate informal col- 
laboration thus became a_ permanent 
practice, obviously because it was valuable 
to both sides . . . Our postwar diplomatic 
history is littered with Anglo-American 

‘‘arrangements’’ and ‘‘understandings’’ 
sometimes on crucial issues, never put 
into documents Clearly, British 

membership of Europe has added a new 
dimension. But the solution is not to sacri- 
fice the special intimacy of the Anglo- 
American connection, but to replicate it 
on a wider plane of America’s relations 
with all its European allies.’ (The Guar- 
dian, 11th May.) 

The direction of the Saudi-European 
initiative has become clear with the 
Tindemans visit. The EEC President 
refused to see the Syrians or the PLO, 
confining his ‘fact-finding’ to the conser- 
vative Arab states, presumably to avoid 
finding many facts that won’t fit with the 
European plan. A key element of this is 
the drawing of Egypt back into the arms of 
the conservative Arab states. Europe and 
the Reagan Administration hope that this 
can be done without rupturing the links 
between the Egyptian regime and the 




THE PEOPLE’S Committee 
for Education in Tripoli is 
charged with running Libya’s 

schools and colleges on behalf 
of the Libyan people. 
Probably its most unusual 
establishment is in London’s 
fashionable Chelsea. Phil 
Kelly visited the Jamahiriya 
School in London 

A LIBYAN flag, solid green in colour, 
flies from a top-floor window of the Jama- 
hiriya School in a quiet Chelsea street; 
it is rather smaller than the Union Jack 
which some neighbours, in a fit of Falk- 
lands-inspired patriotism, are flying from 
their porch. 

In the yard, a handful of children kick 
a ball about, in a game which makes up 
for its lack of organisation by an ample 
supply of enthusiasm. Inside, the school is 
strangely quiet; a glance into one of the 
classrooms explains why. The desks have 
been pushed as far apart as possible, and 
the students are hunched silently over 
pieces of paper. There are no books, and 
teachers patrol the aisles. It is end-of- 
term exam time. 

In his upstairs office, the headmaster, 
Suliman Ifkirin, explains that most of the 
300 pupils are not in the school at present. 
Those not actually taking exams are at 
home undertaking private study. The 
exams are the raison d’étre of the Libyan 

‘The idea of the school is to keep our 
children in the Libyan system of education, 
so that they can fit in with the ordinary 
schools when they go back to Libya with 
their parents,’ he explains. 

Parents of the pupils are in Britain for 
a variety of reasons. Some are staff at the 
People’s Bureau, others. studying at 
British universities and colleges, yet 
others here for medical treatment. Mr 
Ifkirin and his staff of 29 must cope with 
pupils who may attend the school for a 
few months only, or who may stay on for 
several years. Hence the importance of the 
exams, which are exactly the same as those 
being taken by pupils in the same classes 
in schools in the Jamahiriya. 

In addition to the full Libyan syllabus, 
pupils also get extra lessons in English and 
in British ways. A Libyan school has been 
operating in London since 1976. When the 
People’s Committee for Education decided 
to buy the former Inner London Education 
Authority school in Chelsea, classes were 
transferred from a building in Queen’s 
Gate Terrace. The opportunity was also 
taken to extend the educational facilities 
of the school. In addition to primary and 
preparatory education, which covers 
pupils up to 13, the new school also takes 
secondary pupils, up to 18. As in many 

A time for play and a time for work: Two views of activities at the Jamahiriya’s school in Libyan schools, boys and girls study the 
London (Photos by Andrew Wiard, Report) same subjects together. 


Mr Ifkirin explains that prior to the open- 
ing and expansion of the school, Libyan 
parents had experienced great problems 
in finding an education which would enable 
their children to return to schools in Libya 
without falling behind in their studies. 
The opening of the new school meant that 
not only were all Libyans now able to send 
their children to the school, but that a few 
places were also available for children from 
other Arab countries living in London; 
there were pupils from Syria, Algeria and 
Sudan now studying there. 

After purchasing the school from the 
Inner London Education Authority, the 
People’s Committee for Education arrang- 
ed for the building — which had been 
standing empty for five years — to be 
completely refurbished inside and out. 
The classrooms have modern desks and 
equipment, all supplied by British com- 
panies. The large halls on each floor, so 
typical of turn-of-the-century British 
schools, have been marked out for indoor 

In the classrooms, there are wall news- 
papers in English and Arabic, covering 
such diverse topics as the aims of the 
Libyan Revolution and the geography of 
Africa. In most rooms, there are also 
portraits of Muammer Qadhafi. ‘He is very 
popular among the pupils,’ explained Mr 
Ifkirin. ‘It is their feeling that they wish to 
have his picture in the classrooms.’ 


The Jamahiriya School is anxious to be- 
come part of the local community. When it 
was first mooted that the former Kingsley 
School was to be sold to the Libyans there 
was some local opposition, motivated 
largely by lack of information about 
Libya and about the uses to which the 
school would be put. A meeting was held 
in a Chelsea hotel, which was open to all 
local residents. It was attended by staff of 
the school, representatives of the Libyan 
People’s Bureau, local councillors and the 

‘It was made very clear at the meeting 
that the school would be used solely for 
education purposes. It would be registered 
with the appropriate authorities in Britain, 
and therefore subject to inspection at all 
times,’ Mr Ifkirin said. This has now been 
done; the Jamahiriya School has been 
granted provisional registration by the 
Department of Education and Science. 

‘We have made it clear that we want to 
be of use also to the local community,’ 
said Mr Ifkirin, ‘We have offered the use 
of the school for such purposes as. the 
teaching of Arabic in evening classes, 
and the local authority, the Royal Borough 
of Kensington and Chelsea, have express- 
ed an interest in using it for recreational 
and special classes during our vacations. 
We want to be part of the community 
here,’ Mr Ifkirin added. 

Some difficulties were experienced at 
first, as might be expected for any new 
enterprise. Books which ought to have 
been supplied from Tripoli were late in 



Headmaster Suliman Ifkirin explains the function of the school 

arriving, particularly for the secondary 
courses which started for the first time 
when the new building was opened. But 
these problems have been solved, and the 
school now seems as well equipped as any, 
particularly in the light of problems with 
text-books and equipment being exper- 
ienced in state schools in Britain in the 
wake of government cuts in educational 

The school also provides a service of 
peripatetic teachers who visit Libyan 
families living outside London, where 
parents are studying at provincial uni- 
versities and colleges. ‘They are visited 
perhaps once a term,’ Mr Ifkirin said. But 
this is possibly the most difficult of the 
school’s tasks, because of the distances 
involved and the infrequency of contact.’ 

At the meeting called two years ago to 
discuss the school, local residents admit- 
ted that their fears that the school would 
be used for ‘terrorist training’, as had been 
alleged by some right-wing newspapers, 
had been lessened after they had met 
with officials of the People’s Bureau and 
the Jamahiriya School. After the school 
opened, a reception was held to which local 
people and Kensington councillors were 
invited. Despite this contact, and despite 
the contacts between.residents and the 
school’s pupils in recent months, the 
campaign against the school appears to be 
continuing. | 

A conservative peer, Lord Kimberley, 
asked a question about the school in the 
House of Lords in March. He was told that 
it was being registered by the Depart- 
ment of Edtcation and Science, and that it 
would be subject to regular inspection. Mr 
Ifkirin told Jamahiriya Review that all of 
those who were worried about the school 
being put to non-educational uses were 
welcome to pay it a visit and see for them- 

But it seems that this is apparently not 
enough for some people. A journalist from 
the Sunday Telegraph recently paid a visit 
to the school and interviewed the head- 
master, staff and pupils. He was also able 
to look over the building for himself. 
Nevertheless, the story about the school 
which appeared in the paper on 18th April 
still carried allegations that it would be 
used for ‘terrorist activities’. 

Lord Kimberley told Jamahiriya Review 
that he would also welcome an oppor- 
tunity to see the school for himself. He was 
vague about his reasons for renewing the 
campaign over the school with his 
question. ‘I have asked several questions 
about the school; I can’t really say why I 
put down this one. But it does seem an 
awful lot of money to spend on a school,’ 
he said. 

Miss Lyndie Brimstone, a volunteer 
English teacher at the school, and the only 
English staff member, said that the 
reporter had not seemed interested in the 
sort of education the school would pro- 
vide. Indeed, the Sunday Telegraph 
article got the school’s syllabus wrong, 
claiming that the pupils would study only 
‘English, Arabic and the thoughts of 
Colonel Qadhafi’ rather than the full Jama- 
hiriya school syllabus. Questions which 
had been asked concerned alleged ‘poli- 
tical pressure’ on staff and pupils, staff 

Miss Brimstone said that the pupils 
were ‘the same as any school students; 
they are sometimes naughty, and some- 
times very thoughtful.’ Ms * Brimstone 
had taught English as a foreign language 
in several schools and colleges in 
London, and said that she appreciated 
the opportunity to work with a mono- 
lingual group of children rather than the 
mixed groups normal in local authority 

‘No problems’ 

Mr Fergus Hobbs, Chairman of the Glebe 
Place Residents’ Association, said that his 
Association had not wanted the building to 
be used as any sort of school, because this 
inevitably caused more disturbance than if 
the site had been used for housing. Since 
it had opened, local people had exper- 
ienced ‘no more disturbance than if it had 
been any sort of school, although it is 
sometimes used on Saturdays.’ But some 
local people might also have political 
objections to the Libyans, he thought. 
The Residents’ Association, which was 
solely concerned with questions of 
amenity, had not been responsible for the 
renewal of interest in the school’s use. 
‘The Libyans have certainly done it up very 
nicely, though,’ he said. 





THE OPENING on 29th April of a Faculty 
of Nuclear and Electronic Engineering 
at Tripoli’s Al Fateh University under- 
lines the Libyan Jamahiriya’s determin- 
ation to equip its citizens with even the 
most sophisticated technical skills. The 
new faculty has four departments, for 
computing, nuclear engineering, 
materials science and engineering tech- 
nology, and has a range of facilities, 
including lecture halls, specialist labor- 
atories and a library stocked with 9,000 
books. In addition, a special section deals 
with audiovisual teaching aids. 

In revolutionary Libya, education is 
seen as a right for all the people. But it is 
also the key to the country’s ambitious 
economic and social development pro- 
gramme. And, in turn, the Libyan drive 
for across-the-board development is in 
part motivated by the acute awareness 
of the unbreakable links between eco- 
nomic and political independence. No 
country shackled to the economies of 
foreign states or multinational corpor- 
ations can pursue truly independent 
foreign or domestic policies. 

Part of the continuing dependence of the 
Third World on the industrialised coun- 
tries centres is for manpower. Economic 

Free studies abroad 
for specialists 

IN KEEPING with the Jamahiriya's 
policy of self-reliance, Libyan students 
are granted scholarships to study over- 
seas, only when comparable 

instruction ts not available at home. The 
rapid development of higher education 

over the past ten years, however, 
means that Libyans must now travel 
abroad for instruction only in the most 
specialised fields. 

In February the British firm of Inger- 

Higher education: 
The key to Libya's future 

The modern campus at Benghazi's Gar Younis University 

IN LIBYA, education is 

seen not only as a right 

for all the people, but also as 
the foundation for the 
country’s ambitious 
development programme. 

In this special report 

Dr Alan George reviews the 
strides taken in higher 
education, where there is a 
growing emphasis on 
technical training. 

and social development in the twentieth 
century hinges on mastery of a wide range 
of technical and managerial skills. After 
years of neglect during colonial rule, 
developing nations lack their own tech- 
nicians, and have no option but to recruit 
staff in the very countries whose formal 
colonial rule they have shaken off. 
‘Development’ is often measured only 
in terms of national income. But such 
figures can be highly misleading. Many 

soll Engineers won a $41 million 
contract to train workers for Libya's 
first steelworks, being built at the 
coastal town of Misrata, east of Tripoli. 
The company will run a five-year train- 
ing programme, with 350 entrants per 
year. As part of their course, students 
will spend periods in Austria, West 
Germany and Japan undergoing 
practical training with companies 
supplying machinery for the steel- 

In 1981 a contract was announced 
for the training of 480 Libyans in tele- 
communications in Greece. The stu- 
dents will attend schools run by the 

Third World countries have recorded 
rises in income, but without any funda- 
mental change in their ability to generate 
growth independently of economic and 
political currents in the industrialised 
states. Recession in the West, or even a 
decline of demand for a specific com- 

‘modity, can wipe out rises in national 

income. The relationship between the 
developed and developing worlds is little 
better than that between an imperial 
power and its colonies. It is one-sided 
and exploitative, offering Third World 
peoples little hope for long term economic, 
let alone political, security and indepen- 

Formidable challenge 

There is a growing school of thought 
amongst development economists that sees 
the acquisition of technical and managerial 
skills as the single most important factor 
in the attainment of ‘real’, self-sustaining 
development, and the Jamahiriya has 
become increasingly attuned to their 
views. In January last year, former Libyan 
Planning Secretary Musa Abu Freiwa, 
told the General People’s Congress — 
the Libyan legislature — that shortages 
of skilled manpower had proved the 
most formidable challenge to the imple- 
mentation of the country’s 1976-80 
development plan. 

Higher education has consistently been 
accorded a high priority since the 1969 
Revolution, and in the early years the 
emphasis was to increase facilities and 
student numbers across the board. Strik- 
ing progress has been attained. 

At the time of the Revolution, Libya had 
a single university, with faculties divided 
between Tripoli and Benghazi. In addition, 
there was an Islamic University, opened in 
1957 at the north eastern town of Beida. 
But total students enrolled in the 1968/69 
academic year stood at only 3,956. 

The old University of Libya has wit- 
nessed enormous expansion.’In the 1972/3 
academic year it was divided into two 
separate institutions, at Benghazi and 
Tripoli, respectively named Gar Younis 
University and Al Fateh University. In 
1976 a Faculty of Education of Al Fateh 
University was opened in the southern 
town of Sebha, in accordance with the aim 
of distributing educational establishments 

state-owned Hellenic Telecommunt- 
cations Organisation, which under an 
earlier contract had already under- 
taken to train 200 Libyans. 

Even in a field as new to Libya as 
steelmaking, however, the Jamahiriya 
is intent on enabling its citizens to 
attain skills without having to go 
abroad. Last year it was announced 
that the Austrian steel firm Voest 
Alpine had won a $7.8 million contract 
to supply a vocational training centre to 
be linked to the Misrata steel plant. 
The centre will have a workshop, fully 
equipped with machine tools, and class- 
rooms for 240 trainees. 

in all the Jamahiriya’s cities and towns. 
The Beida college has been incorporated 
in Gar Younis University, with Facul- 
ties of Arabic Language and Islamic 
Studies, and of Education and Agriculture. 
By the 1978/79 academic year, Libya’s 
university student population had risen to 
over 14,000. 

Technical skills were not overlooked, and 
special Technical Institutes were  in- 
augurated in 1976 at Brak, Houn and 
Bani Walid. After only two years they were 
catering for 7,500 students. In Tripoli, a 
Petroleum Institute was established, 
together with a Petroleum Faculty at the 
Al Fateh University, while a Petroleum 
Engineering Higher Institute was set up 

in the north eastern coastal town of 
Nevertheless, many of the courses 

offered at Libya’s expanded universities 
bore only limited relation to the country’s 
development needs. Many students were 
studying subjects such as literature and 
foreign languages. In recent years there 
has been a strongly growing emphasis on 
more directly relevant subjects. 

Technical skills 
The 1981-85 development plan expressly 
calls for greater efforts towards the 
acquisition of technical skills by Libyan 
citizens, and the policy was reaffirmed at 
January’s meeting of the Libyan General 
People’s Congress (GPC). The GPC 
resolved to encourage earlier specialisation 
by students. Secondary schools will be 
phased out, and replaced by specialised 
training institutes, with courses linked to 
the universities. It was also agreed that 
post graduate education generally should 
be given much greater emphasis. Another 
resolution, reflecting Libya’s strong 
desire for self-reliance, called for an end 
to scholarships for study overseas, except 
for instruction not available in the Jama- 

The growing emphasis on the develop- 
ment of specialised technical education at 

post-graduate level is also reflected in the- 

facilities recently opened or under way. 
The most striking sign of the new direc- 
tion of Libyan higher education came 
last November when revolutionary leader 
Muammer Qadhafi formally opened the 
Jamahiriya’s first technical university. 
Located at the coastal town of Marsa 
Brega, the university will specialise in 
subjects relating to oil and engineering, 
and will have an eventual population of 
1,700. In addition to a range of well- 
equipped laboratories, there are seven 
lecture theatres in the integrated complex, 
which has about 1,000 rooms. 

A joint venture of Switzerland’s two 
leading construction companies, Preis- 
werk of Basle and Frutigen of Thun took 
three years to build the LD 30 million main 
university complex. Another LD 2 million 
will be spent on utilities such as power and 
air conditioning, and a further LD 1 
million on furniture and laboratory equip- 
ment. A student village is to be added to 
the teaching complex. 

Training the new generation of teachers 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya’'s teacher 
training programme is a crucial area of 

| higher education in a country where 

| 700,000 pupils — about one third of 

| the entire population — are enrolled 
in education up to the age of 18. 
Teacher training, like other sectors of 
education, was sadly neglected in the 
pre-revolutionary era. In the 1968/69 
academic year only 5,159 students were 
enrolled in teachers training insti- 
tutes. Ten years later, the figure had 
increased six-fold, to 28,735. The 
1981-85 Libyan development plan pro- 
vides for further expansion. Four new 
teacher training institutes will be built, 
and students will increase to 30,500. 

| Malta 

Well stocked libraries for Libya's students 

The Marsa Brega University will be- 
come the focus of technical training in the 
Jamahiriya, and will incorporate a number 
of existing colleges and university facul- 
ties. The Mining and Petroleum Faculty 
of Al Fateh University, and the Brak 
Technology Institute are amongst those 
that will be transferred to Marsa Brega. 

Other major new facilities geared to 
meeting the Jamahiriya’s development 
needs are under way. Last October it 
was disclosed that the Swiss firm of 
Geilinger had won a $50 million contract 
to build a Faculty of Agriculture for Gar 
Younis University, to be located at Beida 
some 200 kilometres north east of Ben- 
ghazi. The two-storey building will cover 
an area of more than 28,000 square metres, 
and will cater for 1,500 students and 150 
staff. Completion is due by the end of 

The main campus at Gar Younis, mean- 
while, is continuing its expansion, with a 
clear emphasis on facilities for technical 
studies. In 1981 South Korea’s Daewoo 
Development Corporation won a $82.4 
million contract to build a factory of 
science. The firm also had a letter of 
intent for the construction of a $40.2 
million printing complex. 

Until a few years ago, teacher train- 
ing in Libya comprised a short, two year 
course which commenced at the end of 
the intermediate stage of school 
education. Students started their in- 
struction as teachers at the age of only 
fifteen or sixteen, and were able to 
take up posts only in primary or ele- 
mentary schools. There has since been 
a shift to longer, and much more 
thorough, training for teachers, with 
courses lasting four or five years, but 
with students still starting at the end of 
intermediate education. By 1978 
about 23,000 of the total of 28,000 
trainee teachers were already pursu- 
ing the new longer courses. 

Eee! . et ° cca 

Maritime skills 

The drive to enhance the practical skills 
of Libyan citizens is not confined to the 
universities. The 1981-85 development 
plan provides for the expansion of Libya’s 
merchant fleet to 36 vessels, and by 1985 
it is expected that 60 per cent of all the 
country’s imports will be carried on Libyan 
vessels. To meet the demand for skilled 
crews for the new ships, the Jamahiriya 
will open its first merchant marine college. 
Last year the Yugoslav firm Energo- 
projekt won the construction contract for 
the college, which will cater for 400-600 
undergraduate students and 100 post- 
graduates. Construction should take three 

The coming years will see no slowing 
down in the development of higher edu- 
cation in the Jamahiriya. The $62.5 billion 
1981-85 development plan allocates a 
massive one billion Libyan dinars to edu- 
cation at all levels, and the number of 
students in university and higher edu- 
cation is set to increase at an average 
annual rate of 9.6 per cent, from 19,300 
in the 1980/81 academic year to 30,000 
in 1985/86. It is a very far cry from the 
days following Libya’s nominal indepen- 
dence in 1951, when only fourteen Libyans 
held university degrees. 





The Libyan Revolution transformed the international oil market 

THE HISTORY of the political, economic 
and social development of the Libyan 
Jamahiriya since the September Revo- 
lution of 1969 is a subject that requires 
special care and attention from any author, 
to enable him to see through the mass of 
biased and inaccurate verbiage to which 
any student of Middle East politics must 
become accustomed. Few countries and 
systems of government can have been the 
subject of as much hostile mis-information 
as the Jamahiriya has been, and regret- 
tably, it is only a very few observers who 
can be said to have made their way 
safely through the mis-information mine- 
field to obtain a real grasp of the country. 
Unfortunately, John Wright is one who 
seems to have got blown up on the way. 

Chapters covering the period prior to the 
Revolution can serve the reader as an 
outline guide, although several need 
reading with caution. One problem seems 
to have been that when Mr Wright has 
stumbled across a useful fact, he does not 
always give it the attention which it 
deserves. One example is the section 
dealing with the expansion of the colonial 
powers at the beginning of the twentieth 
century, with Italy thrusting south from 
the Mediterranean and France north- 
wards through the Sahara into the Fezzan. 
Greater detail to explain the fact that 
large areas which were under the political 
and economic control of Libyan-based 
entities were then severed would have 
been valuable. 

Moreover, on occasion the author dis- 
plays the ability to run across _inter- 
pretations of value, but then appears to 
lack the courage to spell them out properly. 
For example, in an analysis of the structure 
of the Senussi regime, he says, ‘The 
Libyan Kingdom was from the outset 

A NEW book, entitled 
‘Libya—A Modern History’ 
has just been published in 
London. But Peter Hellyer 

questions whether the author 
has placed the achievements 
of Libya since 1969 in their 
proper perspective or studied 
them in sufficient detail. 

little more than a benign despotism 
administered by an oligarchy of leading 
families and tribal and commercial 
interests.’ Even the carefully chosen facts 
that he presents on” political repression 
would tend to cast doubt on the use of the 
word ‘benign’, while proper reference 
to the corruption that characterised the 
regime would not have been out of place. 

Mr Wright’s main area of expertise is 
in oil, but here he clearly lets his pre- 
dilection towards the international oil 
companies run away with him. He does, 
to give him his due, praise the role of the 
Jamahiriya in revolutionising relations 
between the ‘Seven Sisters’ and the oil- 
exporting countries thus: ‘The swift revo- 
lution in company-government relations 
(1970-1974) was due primarily to Libyan 
initiative, hard-headed boldness and well- 
timed insistence on the recognition of 
economic ‘‘rights’’ that other producers 
had long claimed but had been unable or 
unwilling to achieve.’ 

More details of precisely how the Libyan 
oil industry came under national control, 
and how the plotting of the oil majors was 
defeated should however have been pro- 
vided, especially by a journalist specialis- 

Lost in a minefield of mis-information 

ing in oil. Perhaps the reason for the 
omission is hinted at in Mr Wright’s 
comment on Libya’s first oil law, drawn 
up under the monarchy. ‘The law,’ he says, 
‘was much praised for its fairness and 
foresight.’ He adds that it was drawn up 
by a drafting committee on which the oil 
companies themselves were represented. 
Little wonder then that in the _ post- 
revolutionary era, the law was shown to 
have represented virtually a licence to 
print money for the oil companies and for 
their local agents. 

The saddest omission of the book is its 
failure to deal properly with develop- 
ments since the revolution in,the political 
economic and social fields.:There is a 
grudging admission that progress has 
been achieved, while Mr Wright does 
satisfactorily dispose of the theory that 
the Revolution was a mere military coup 
d'état. It was, he states, ‘the result of 
sustained ideological and practical pre- 
parations’, which had begun long before 
those who carried it out had even joined 
the armed forces. 

The book, then, fails to give any real 
understanding of the Jamahiriya today, 
its achievements, it objectives, and pre- 
cisely how it works. It cannot be said to fit 
into the pattern of hostile reporting to 
which students of the Jamahiriya have 
become so accustomed, although Mr 
Wright’s attempts to submerge his own 
feelings do not always succeed. At the 
same time, however, while the historical 
background may be useful, what is really 
needed today is a detailed study of the 
Jamahiriya — the period after 1969. 
Regrettably, it is precisely that which Mr 
Wright has failed to provide. 

[] Libya—A Modern History by John Wright, 
published by Croom Helm, price £13.95. 

WHEN OIL Ministers of OPEC countries 
met in Vienna at the end of March, the 
western media was replete with barely 
concealed glee about the chaos in the world 
oil markets, and the excess of OPEC 
production over world demand, leading to 
falling prices for oil products, and the 
weakening of both the political and eco- 
nomic power of the oil producing countries. 

‘Oil is not a magic commodity,’ one self- 
styled oil ‘expert’, Christopher Murphy of 
the London stockbrokers James Capel, told 
Newsweek on 22nd March; ‘the price will 
at least halve before this bear market 
[falling price period] is through.’ 

There was open anticipation that the 
oil exporters would fail to pull together. 
‘The best possible outcome of the Vienna 
meeting would be no agreement at all. 
Instead of the familiar spectacle of cartel 
members announcing yet another price 
increase, OPEC’s quarrelsome ministers 
may simply head home in_ scowling 
silence sending the price of oil down even 
more,’ said Time magazine on 22nd 

But the western media were disappoin- 
ted. At their Vienna meeting, OPEC 
Ministers not only agreed a further over- 
all production cut; they also, for the first 
time in OPEC history, agreed production 
quotas for OPEC members. In the past, 
OPEC has set its prices, and because of 
the high demand for oil, those prices have 
been met. 

Since the onset of the recession in the 
capitalist world’s economy in 1980, fall- 
ing demand for oil has meant that OPEC 
prices were eroded. The result was 
pressure from the Libyan Jamahiriya and 
other radical OPEC countries for cuts in 

Before the March meeting, OPEC’s 
‘bench mark’ price of $34 dollars a barrel 
was under pressure. On the Amsterdam 
‘spot’ market, where oil is traded to the 
highest bidder, prices had fallen as low as 
$25 a barrel. The February announce- 
ment by the British National Oil Corpor- 

ation that it would sell its crude — which. 

usually attracts a premium above the 
OPEC price — for three dollars a barrel 
below it was taken as further pressure on 
OPEC to cut prices. 

In the first months of this year, total 
OPEC production was estimated at around 
18 million barrels a day. But OPEC Chair- 
man Mana Saeed Al Oteiba of the UAE 
announced on 21st April that it had fallen 
during the month to under 16 million 
barrels a day. ‘A cut in OPEC’s bench- 
mark price of $34 a barrel is a dream of the 
past.’ he told the UAE’s news agency 
WAM. The Organisation was prepared ‘to 
go below the current production of 15.85 
million barrels a day’ to defend its prices, 
he said. The OPEC chief was speaking 
after a meeting of the four-nation special 
committee on prices set up by the Vienna 
meeting to monitor the production cuts and 

Nigeria’s plight 
The worst sufferer from the glut was 

OPEC may have beaten off 

oil surplus problems 

OPEC, THE Organisation 
of Petroleum Exporting 
Countries, appears 
successfully to have beaten 
off challenges from western 
countries, principally the 
United States. The slide in 
the price of oil which 
occurred over the last six 
months was halted in April. 
Phil Kelly analyses the 

UAE ‘Oil Minister Mana Saeed al Oteiba 

undoubtedly Nigeria. As long ago as 
November, Libyan leader Muammer 
Qadhafi drew attention to the plight of 
this country of 40 million people, whose 
light crude oil is normally sold at a pre- 
mium over the OPEC price. With similar 
oil available from the North Sea at $31 
a barrel, and with an estimated 4 million 
barrels of oil a day being unloaded on to 
the world market by the oil companies, 
many companies were simply refusing to 
buy Nigerian oil at its official price. 

As well as cutting production, OPEC 
countries threatened major oil companies 
which refused to deal with Nigeria that 
they might be blacklisted by other pro- 
ducers. The threat worked. Nigerian 
production, which fell to about 630,000 
barrels a day in March, rose to about 
900,000 b/d in April, though this is far 
below the quota set in Vienna, which 
allowed 1.3 billion b/d. 

Key to OPEC’s production levels is the 
amount of oil produced by Saudi Arabia, 
which accounts for about half of total OPEC 
output. In February, the political editor 
of the Libyan news agency JANA, reflect- 
ing widely-held feelings in the Jama- 
hiriva and the Arab homeland as a whole, 
said that the survival of some oil producing 

countries was at risk, and that Saudi 
Arabia was largely responsible. The Saudi 
rulers maintained that their level of pro- 
duction was not set deliberately in order 
to cause a glut, as Libya and other critics 
suggested. Their fear, they said privately, 
was that if they cut production, other 
OPEC producers would simply increase 
theirs to compensate. 

The production quotas set for all OPEC 
countries at the end of March removed that 
excuse. It appears that pressure on the 
Saudis has made them realise that the oil 
price would continue to slide under the 
OPEC level unless they cut their pro- 
duction below the nine million barrels a 
day which they were producing at the 
beginning of the year. 

The oil glut brought two major advan- 
tages for the United States. Oil prices 
which were static or falling helped to 
reduce the Americans’ oil import bill 
and so to limit the USA’s balance of 
payments deficit. Imports from the Middle 
East to the US fell from 14.2 per cent 
to 11.38 per cent of the US import bill 
between 1980 and 1981, the Middle East 
Economic Digest reported on 23rd April. 
In January, Saudi Oil Minister Sheikh 
Yamani admitted to the Paris-based 
journal Al Mostakbal that an oil embargo 
against the US in order to bring pressure 
to bear over American Middle East policy 
would be impossible ‘for one of two years’ 
because of the glut. 

So in a crucial period for the Arabs, as 
Israel went ahead with its plans to make 
permanent in some way its control over the 
occupied West Bank and Gaza, there was 
no way of bringing Arab pressure to bear 
on the US. The deaths of at least 40 Pales- 
tinians, in the occupied territories and in 
camps in Lebanon, can be directly attri- 
buted to the oil glut. 

This is now over. Officials at the OPEC 
special committee meeting said _ that 
prices in the spot market were already 
climbing over the $31 dollars a barrel 
level by the British. ‘The Chairman of 
Exxon said in Detroit yesterday that he 
expected economic expansion to erase the 
world-wide glut of oil by the autumn and 
start pushing prices back up,’ The Guar- 
dian reported on 28th April. This is good 
news for the oil companies. Higher prices 
make it possible for them to explore for 
oil in ever more remote and _ difficult 
locations, and thus to maintain their 
grip on the world’s oil production. 

Whether it is also good news for the 
oil producing countries depends largely 
on whether they can use the increasing 
power of oil to achieve a modification of 
the Reagan administration’s policy of 
unconditional support for Israeli aggres- 
sion against the Palestinians and the 





Steel contract 
for UK 

EPSOM-BASED consultants W S 
Atkins has won a four-year con- 
tract to provide a resident team of 
engineers to assist in supervising 
the construction of the first phase 
of the Jamahiriya’s first integrated 
iron and steelworks, which is 
currently being built at Misrata, 
on the coast 200 k#ometres east of 
Tripoli. The contract value has 
not been disclosed. 

The Misrata steelworks is the 
largest single project in Libya’s 
$62.5 billion 1981-85 development 
plan. The $3.3 billion first phase, 
for completion by 1985, provides 
for an annual capacity of 1.2 
million tonnes of steel. A second 
stage, for completion by 1995, 
will increase capacity to 5S million 
tonnes, and a third stage will 
give a 7 million tonnes capacity 
by 2005. 

The first stage will have two 
steel production lines, each with a 
direct reduction plant, electric 
arc furnaces and _ continuous 
casting equipment. One line will 
consist of two rod and bar mills 
and a medium section mill. The 
second line, for flat products, 
will have hot and cold rolling 
mills with associated finishing 

W S Atkins has been involved in 
the Jamahiriya for some years, 
and is already working on another 
project related to the Méisrata 
steelworks. In 1977 the Secre- 
tariat of Communications awarded 
the firm a contract to conduct 
surveys and prepare designs for 
two roads in western Libya. One 
of these will link Sadadah, to the 
south of Misrata, to the main 
coast road. It will be used to trans- 
port limestone and dolomite rock 
from new quarries near Sadadah 
for use in the steel making pro- 
cess. The second road is a 250 
kilometre link between Sirte, the 
coast, and Waddan, in the desert 
interior. The new route will cut 
the road distance between Ben- 
ghazi and the central Libyan town 
of Sebha by 175 kilometres. The 
British consultants are also 
responsible for supervising the 
construction of the two roads, 
which began in May last year. 

Heliports for 
flying doctor 

THE ITALIAN firm _Italconsult 
has begun designs for twenty 
heliports, and tender documents 
for their construction are expected 
to be issued by the end of the year. 
The heliports are for Libya’s 
flying doctor service, and will be 
built near hospitals throughout 
the Jamahiriya. 

A key aim of Libya’s health 


care planners is to provide all 
the country’s citizens with ready 
access to medical services. To 
overcome the obstacle posed by 
the enormous distances in the 
Jamahiriya, a flying doctor 
service was inaugurated last year. 
It was announced in March 1981 
that the Health Secretariat had 
bought three helicopters and two 
fixed-wing aircraft for the service, 
and that thirty pilots for the 
medical aircraft had completed 
their training. 

Bus link with 

A BUS service between Tripoli 
and the Tunisian town of Gabes 
started on 19th April, two 
months after revolutionary leader 
Muammer Qadhafi visited Tunis 
for talks with President Habib 
Bourguiba and Premier Muham- 
mad Maali. The visit marked the 
end of a _ period of strained 
relations stemming from an epi- 
sode in 1980 when it was 
alleged that the Jamahiriya had 
instigated an uprising in the south 
Tunisian mining town of Gafsa. 
Following Muammer Qadhafi’s 
visit, Libya and Tunisia signed a 
wide-ranging agreement aimed at 
eliminating all economic barriers 
between the neighbouring coun- 

italian trade 

FIGURES JUST published by the 
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica 
show that Italian exports to the 
Jamahiriya last year rose to $4.9 
billion, more than twice the 1980 
total of $2.2 billion. Imports from 
Libya increased by one third, to 
$3.7 billion. 

The statistics show that the 
Libyan Jamahiriya has confirmed 
its role as Italy’s most important 
trading partner in the Arab home- 
land. Italian exports to Arab 
countries last year totalled $12.9 
billion, accounting for 18 per cent 
of Italian exports worldwide. 
The Arab homeland ” supplied 
Italy with goods worth $18.8 
billion, 22 per cent of Italy’s 
imports from all sources. Amongst 
the Arab countries, the Jama- 
hiriya was by far the most 
important destination for Italian 
goods. As a source of Italian 
imports from the Arab home- 
land, Libya came in second place, 

after Saudi Arabia. 
US Department of Commerce 
figures, meanwhile, show that 

strained relations between Wash- 
ington and Tripoli have not pre- 
vented an expansion of trade 
ties. US exports to the Jama- 
hiriya last year jumped to $813.4 
million from $508.8 million in 

1980. Libya’s exports to the 
USA in 1981 stood at $5.3 
billion, a sharp fall from the 1980 
figure of $8.6 billion, reflecting 
fower oil prices. The Jama- 
hiriya’s 1981 exports to America 
were nevertheless slightly higher 
than the 1979 level of $5.2 billion. 

The US last year exported 
goods worth $16.7 billion to the 
Arab homeland, accounting for 
7.2 per cent of all American 
exports. Imports from the Arab 
countries were $28.1 billion — 
10.7 per cent of global US exports. 
Saudi Arabia is by far the largest 
of America’s trading partners in 
the Arab region. 

Libyan hotel in 

room Qasr Djerba Hotel in Malta 
-has been completed, the Jama- 
hiriya News Agency JANA 
disclosed on 11th April. The 
hotel, the largest in Malta, is 
owned by the Libyan Arab Foreign 
Investment Company (LAFIC), 
set up last year to handle all 
the Jamahiriya’s non-banking 
overseas investments. 

JANA quoted sources at LAFIC 
as saying that the new hotel was 
‘living proof of the Jamahiriya’s 
positive investment role in friend- 
ly countries, and is the fruit of 
mutual co-operation between the 
Jamahiriya and Malta’. 

New merchant 
ship delivered 

THE LIBYAN Jamahiriya has 
taken delivery of its latest 
merchant vessel, the 9,000 dwt 
Hashish, the Libyan news agency 
JANA announced on 8th April. 
The new ship was built in East 
Germany, and brings to 26 the 
number of vessels in the Libyan 
merchant marine. The Hashish 
has two sister ships already in 
service with the National 
Shipping Company. The 9,400 
tonne Jbn Hawkal was delivered 
on 12th January, and the Sirte on 
25th October last. The com- 
pletion of the contract for the three 
ships marks an important step in 
attaining the 1981-85 develop- 
ment plan’s target of a 36-vessel 
merchant fleet by the middle of 
the decade. 

The expansion of the fleet has 
been accompanied by a major 
port development programme, 
which aims at increasing the 
annual capacity of the country’s 
ports for 7 million tonnes in 1980 
to 16 million tonnes by 1981. The 
latest port scheme was completed 
on 17th April when a new oil 
jetty was inaugurated in the 
north east port of Tobruk. The 
150 metre jetty, built for the 
Brega Oil Marketing Company, 
can accommodate  fully-laden 
10,000 tonnes oil tankers, and 
partly laden 15,000 _ tonnes 
tankers. The new oil terminal has 

Tripoli port — gateway to Libyan development markets 


A=: be kad 

Libyan housin 

aa ae re) 

oe DX I>< bd be 





ws - 

g: 5,000 new homes in Tripoli and 7,000 in Ben- 

ghazi will be provided by recent contracts signed. See report: 
British Consultant in Tripoli housing scheme. 

a full range of modern facilities, 
including an automatic fire-fight- 
ing system, and a radio communi- 
cations system linking the oper- 
ations room to tankers. 

Libal: Joint 
company for 

Industry Secretariat and the Yugo- 
slavian concern Energoinvest have 
formed a joint company, Libal, 
to operate Libya’s first aluminium 
smelting complex, to be built at 
Zuwara, on the coast 120 kilo- 
metres west of Tripoli. The new 
company will be based in Tripoli, 
and 20 per cent of its $80 million 
capital will be put up by Yugo- 

The Zuwara complex will 
include a 120,000 tonnes per 
annum smelter, and a 175,000 
tonnes per annum plant to produce 
petroleum coke, which is used in 
the smelting process. Total 
construction costs will be about 
$1.25 billion, the Yugoslav news 
agency Tanjug said on 2nd April. 

An American joint venture of 
Kaiser Engineers and National 
Southwire Aluminium Company 
last year won an $800 million 

design, engineering procure- 
ment and construction super- 
vision contract for the smelter. 
Also in 1981, the Italian firm 
Foster Wheeler Italiana won a 
$45 million contract for similar 
work on the associated petroleum 
coke plant. The British con- 
sultants Sir Alexander Gibb & 
Partners is designing a new port 
to serve the Zuwara complex. 

Scheduled to enter operation 
in 1986, the aluminium complex 
is one of the largest projects 
in the Jamahiriya’s 1981-85 
development plan, which allo- 
cates $13.5 billion — 23 per cent 
of total expenditure — to indus- 
trial development. 

New dam will. 

THE LOW rainfall that prevails 
over all of the Jamahiriya except 
the coastal zones in the north 
west and north east poses a major 
challenge to Libya’s ambitious 
agricultural development pro- 
gramme, which aims at self- 
sufficiency in food by the turn of 
the century. Water conservation 
has become a preoccupation of 
agricultural planners, and one of 
the key measures under way is 
the construction of a series of 

dams to tap surface run-off of 
rainwater that was formerly lost 
to agriculture. 

The Indian firm Continental 
Construction is nearing comple- 
tion of one of the largest of the 
new dams, a $90 million rock- 
fill structure across the Wadi 
Ghan, near Gharian to the south 
of Tripoli. The 315 metre wide, 
72 metre high dam will allow the 
development of irrigated agri- 
culture in the surrounding Wadi al 
Hira area. Work on the dam 
started in 1978. 

The Jamahiriya’s $62.5 billion 
1981-85 development plan allo- 
cates $10.1 billion to agriculture, 
16.2 per cent of total plan expendi- 
ture. A major aim is to bring a 
further 66,330 hectares of land 
into irrigated cultivation. 

The emphasis on the efficient 
use of water for agriculture has 
created important opportunities 
for suppliers of irrigation equip- 
ment. It was announced in March 
that the Turkish firm Yazar 
Pompa has earned $2.6 million 
from exports of 16,000 motor 
pumps to the Jamahiriya. 

The development of market 
gardening is another important 
aim of Libya’s agricultural plan- 
ners, and in April companies 
were invited to bid for a major 
contract to erect greenhouses 
throughout the country. 

Libya also aims to boost agri- 
cultural output by greater use of 
modern pesticides. In March the 
Polish firm Dromex won a con- 
tract to build roads, and two air- 
fields for crop-dusting planes. 
The Jamahiriya is the firm’s 
major trading partner, and 
Dromex has already built more 
than 1,500 kilometres of roads 
and three airfields for crop- 
dusting aircraft. 

exchanges on 

company is on schedule to deliver 
five mobile telephone exchanges, 
each with 1,000 lines, by the 
middle of the year. The equip- 
ment is part of a telecommuni- 
cations equipment order worth 
$40 million, won last autumn. The 
firm is also to supply and 
install four local telephone ex- 
changes and associated dialling 
equipment, and to extend a 
number of existing exchanges. 

Siemens is already playing a 
key role in the expansion of the 
Jamahiriya’s telecommunications 
network, and since 1976 has been 
working on a major project to 
establish country-wide telephone 

The Jamahiriya’s 1981-85 
development plan provides for 
the extension of the telephone 


network so that there will be ten 
telephones per 100 citizens by 
the middle of the decade, com- 
pared with six per 100 in 1980. 

consultant for 
Tripoli housing 

SOUTH KOREA’S Daewoo Cor- 
poration has appointed the 
British consultants Robert 
Matthew Johnson-Marshall & 
Partners to assist in a major 
housing scheme in Tripoli. The 
London firm will undertake 
design work, and help in co- 
ordinating the provision of util- 
ities. Client for the project is the 
Jamahiriya’s Social Security 
Secretariat, with which the con- 
sulting company has worked for 
several years. Part of the firm’s 
work will be to liaise between 
Daewoo and the Secretariat. 

The Tripoli housing project 
is one of three contracts won 
simultaneously by Daewoo last 
autumn, and entailing the con- 
struction of 12,000 homes and 
2,500 classrooms. The order was 
the largest ever won by a South 
Korean firm overseas, and 
brought the total value of Dae- 
woo’s work in Libya to $3 billion. 
All three projects are due for 
completion by the end of 1985, the 
final year of the Jamahiriya’s 
current five-year plan. 

The Tripoli contract, for 5,000 
homes, is worth $347.9 million. 
In Benghazi, Daewoo will build 
7,000 homes for the city’s muni- 
cipality, at a cost of $513.3 
million. The third contract is 
worth $526.8 million, and is for 
the construction of 2,500 class- 
rooms in eleven differerit muni- 
cipalities. Client is the Libyan 
Education Secretariat. 

Designs for the housing have 
been completed, and work has 
started on the construction of 
two precast concrete factories 
required for the schemes. One is 
under way in Tripoli, and the 
other in Benghazi. Daewoo has 
shipped precast concrete-making 
equipment from France, and is 
finalising a contract with the 
Italian firm Valdadige for design 
work and for the supply of 
machinery for the two plants. 

Suppliers of site equipment 
have benefitted from the major 
construction projects under way 
throughout the Jamahiriya. In 
March it was announced that the 
Manchester-based firm Kwik- 
form has a $838,380 order for 
scaffolding for a Libyan housing 
project, and in April it was dis- 
closed that Norway’s G Block 
Watne has a $1.6 million contract 
for site accommodation in the 
coastal towns of Misrata and 




aN ee 
The solution of the problem of Democracy 

The solution of the Economic Problem 

The Social Basis of the Third Universal Theory 

In these three volumes the Libyan leader examines the economic, social 
and politica! problems confronting the world today, and presents a radical 
programme for their solution. 

The Green Book provides a comprehensive review of the theories 
on which the Libyan Jamahiriya is based. The proposals put forward by 
Muammer al Qadhafi are not merely theories but an explanation and 
insight into the structure and priorities of modern Libya. 

Copies of The Green Book can be obtained from The Information 
a Teel eat) Cee sere miCmener eel meter r url le lt 
5 St James’s Square, London SW1.